Literature Review

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension resulting in decompensated right heart failure

Daniel Miller, Karim Makhoul, Allison Foster and Asma Ul Hosna*

Published: 24 November, 2022 | Volume 6 - Issue 2 | Pages: 012-015

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a notoriously underdiagnosed cause of severe pulmonary hypertension. It is a form of precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) that results from intraluminal thrombus organization and fibrous formation which ultimately results in the complete obliteration of pulmonary arteries, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance which leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension and as a result right heart failure. The mechanism involves the narrowing of the pulmonary artery which increases blood pressure within the lungs and impairs blood flow which increases the workload of the right side of the heart ultimately causing right heart failure. Pulmonary hypertension can also cause arrhythmias, blood clots, and bleeding in the lungs. Even though CTEPH is a deadly condition, among all forms of pulmonary hypertension, CTEPH is the only curable form. Echocardiography is the initial assessment tool for suspected PH. A right heart catheterization may be performed to confirm the presence of pulmonary hypertension. Confirmation of CTEPH requires a V/Q scan. Although ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy has a major role in the evaluation of patients with suspected CTEPH, nowadays CTA chest is being used widely as it produces much better-quality images compared to V/Q scan. Without treatment, the prognosis is very poor. Out of three treatment modalities such as; pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) surgery, balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), and medical therapy, surgery is the gold standard. The physician must be familiar with the disease entity, early diagnosis, and appropriate treatment to improve survival. Here we present a literature review on this topic.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jprr.1001037 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


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