Published: 23 September, 2022 | Volume 6 - Issue 2 | Pages: 007-011
Aim of the study: Conduct long-term monitoring of recovered patients with pulmonary TB and study the frequency of relapses of pulmonary TB and factors contributing to their development in the Republic of Tajikistan.
Material and research methods: Of the total number of patients with pulmonary TB, 820 people in 2010-2011 after successful treatment, were transferred for further dispensary observation to PHC facilities, whose health status we monitored for 10 years (including 2020). Of the 820 patients, we were able to track the health status for 10 years in 622 patients (320 men and 302 women, age groups 19-44 years old - 330 people and 45-69 years old - 292 people). The rest - for various reasons were lost from further dispensary observation. All patients in PHC facilities annually during the period of dispensary observation underwent clinical, instrumental, laboratory, and X-ray examinations to exclude the recurrence of TB. Data for each patient were tracked using the National TB Registry OpenMRS data.
Research results: The elimination of preventive anti-relapse measures in people with residual post-tuberculosis changes in the lungs led to an increase in the number of relapses of the disease. The analysis of the conducted studies shows that the incidence of relapses of pulmonary TB does not depend on the regions and the severity of TB burden, they often develop with insufficient follow-up after the end of treatment and inadequate preventive measures in dispensaries patients.
The study of the reasons for the development of relapses makes it possible to timely identify a group of patients who need anti-relapse measures and prolongation of dispensary observation.
Conclusion: Thus, the results of this observation revealed the occurrence of relapses within 10 years in 19.3% of cases. A retrospective analysis of the initial forms of the disease showed that relapses of pulmonary tuberculosis occurred more often in patients who had had fibrous-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, than in patients who had disseminated pulmonary TB, and less often after suffering infiltrative pulmonary TB. Relapses of the disease occurred more often in men aged 19-44 years.
The results obtained indicate the development of relapses of pulmonary tuberculosis has a statistically significant dependence on the form of the initial disease, the presence of RPTCL, comorbid diseases such as HIV, diabetes mellitus, COPD, and the regularity of taking anti-TB drugs. At the same time, it turned out that the social status of all patients with relapses corresponds to the level of poverty, which should also be taken into account.
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